Medical School

Sep 01

Neural Layers
 neural stem cells lie in the layer closest to the ventricular space, the ventricular layer
this layer generates both neuroblasts and glioblasts

Neuroblasts - neurons arise first as neuroblasts and migrate along radial gial, their migration stops at cortical plate. Glioblasts - glia arise later as glioblasts
Both neurons and glia undergo a complex process of growth, differentiation and interaction over a long developmental time period. 

Neural Layers

Neuroblasts - neurons arise first as neuroblasts and migrate along radial gial, their migration stops at cortical plate. Glioblasts - glia arise later as glioblasts

Both neurons and glia undergo a complex process of growth, differentiation and interaction over a long developmental time period. 

(Source: php.med.unsw.edu.au)

Aug 31

nprglobalhealth:

Peter Piot and his colleagues were looking at samples from a Belgian nun who had died of a disease in Congo. The question he thought he was trying to answer: Was it yellow fever? 
Instead it was a new disease.
Read more and listen to the interview: The Co-Discoverer Of Ebola Never Imagined An Outbreak Like This

nprglobalhealth:

Peter Piot and his colleagues were looking at samples from a Belgian nun who had died of a disease in Congo. The question he thought he was trying to answer: Was it yellow fever? 

Instead it was a new disease.

Read more and listen to the interview: The Co-Discoverer Of Ebola Never Imagined An Outbreak Like This


Metaphase and Anaphase
Upon entry into anaphase, the mitotic spindle reorganizes dramatically: kinetochore fibers attached to chromosomes shorten, bringing chromatids toward the poles. The astral microtubules, which radiate from each spindle pole, elongate until they reach the cell surface. Meanwhile, a bundle of antiparallel microtubules, called the ‘central spindle,’ remains at the midpoint between the two poles. The central spindle and astral microtubules collaborate to position the division plane during cytokinesis.

Metaphase and Anaphase

Upon entry into anaphase, the mitotic spindle reorganizes dramatically: kinetochore fibers attached to chromosomes shorten, bringing chromatids toward the poles. The astral microtubules, which radiate from each spindle pole, elongate until they reach the cell surface. Meanwhile, a bundle of antiparallel microtubules, called the ‘central spindle,’ remains at the midpoint between the two poles. The central spindle and astral microtubules collaborate to position the division plane during cytokinesis.

(Source: download.cell.com)

Aug 30

Large FOV MRA of the supra-aortic, carotids and cerebral vessels

Large FOV MRA of the supra-aortic, carotids and cerebral vessels

Aug 29

Thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysm with kinking of the aorta

Thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysm with kinking of the aorta

(Source: farm7.staticflickr.com)

Aug 28

fastcompany:

A designer’s guide to improving end-of-life care.
The world’s population is aging. The World Health Organization estimates that by 2050, the proportion of people 60 years or older in the world will have doubled, from 11% in 2000 to 22% (2 billion people) in 2050. This makes services for the elderly, like hospice care, which seeks to ease the pain (physical and emotional) of terminally ill patients and their families in their last days, even more important.
The problem is, we tend to avoid talking about death and dying, and people don’t always make plans in advance for end-of-life care. And as it stands, today’s hospice care system can be can be impersonal, under-resourced and under-staffed, and plagued with communication issues between care workers, patients, and families. In some cases, the people who provide palliative care are also paid criminally low wages. In the U.S., home hospice care work only recently stopped being classified as “companionship,” meaning workers didn’t qualify for federal labor protections.

Singapore- and Barcelona-based health care design consultancy fuelfor spent nine months researching hospice care and its issues in Singapore, where the designers found hospice to be an “invisible and avoided service.” Commissioned by the Lien Foundation, a Singapore-based philanthropy, and the ACM Foundation, a funeral service company, fuelfor came up with a handful of strategies to improve the way hospice care is run, both in Singapore and in the rest of the world.
The Hospitable Hospice handbook (which won a 2014 International Design Excellence Award) redesigns not only the look and function of hospice care facilities, but also how hospice workers communicate with each other, how people learn about and experience the hospice process, and how people pay for care. Here are seven of their suggestions for better care:
Read More>

fastcompany:

A designer’s guide to improving end-of-life care.

The world’s population is aging. The World Health Organization estimates that by 2050, the proportion of people 60 years or older in the world will have doubled, from 11% in 2000 to 22% (2 billion people) in 2050. This makes services for the elderly, like hospice care, which seeks to ease the pain (physical and emotional) of terminally ill patients and their families in their last days, even more important.

The problem is, we tend to avoid talking about death and dying, and people don’t always make plans in advance for end-of-life care. And as it stands, today’s hospice care system can be can be impersonal, under-resourced and under-staffed, and plagued with communication issues between care workers, patients, and families. In some cases, the people who provide palliative care are also paid criminally low wages. In the U.S., home hospice care work only recently stopped being classified as “companionship,” meaning workers didn’t qualify for federal labor protections.

image

Singapore- and Barcelona-based health care design consultancy fuelfor spent nine months researching hospice care and its issues in Singapore, where the designers found hospice to be an “invisible and avoided service.” Commissioned by the Lien Foundation, a Singapore-based philanthropy, and the ACM Foundation, a funeral service company, fuelfor came up with a handful of strategies to improve the way hospice care is run, both in Singapore and in the rest of the world.

The Hospitable Hospice handbook (which won a 2014 International Design Excellence Award) redesigns not only the look and function of hospice care facilities, but also how hospice workers communicate with each other, how people learn about and experience the hospice process, and how people pay for care. Here are seven of their suggestions for better care:

Read More>

Syringomyelia is a generic term referring to a disorder in which a cyst or cavity forms within the spinal cord. This cyst, called a syrinx, can expand and elongate over time, destroying the spinal cord. The damage may result in pain, paralysis, weakness, and stiffness in the back, shoulders, and extremities. Syringomyelia may also cause a loss of the ability to feel extremes of hot or cold, especially in the hands. The disorder generally leads to a cape-like loss of pain and temperature sensation along the back and arms. Each patient experiences a different combination of symptoms. These symptoms typically vary depending on the extent and, often more critically, to the location of the syrinx within the spinal cord.
Image: An idiopathic syrinx. See the thin light grey shape inside the spinal cord, placed at centre in the bottom half of the above image.

Syringomyelia is a generic term referring to a disorder in which a cyst or cavity forms within the spinal cord. This cyst, called a syrinx, can expand and elongate over time, destroying the spinal cord. The damage may result in pain, paralysis, weakness, and stiffness in the back, shoulders, and extremities. Syringomyelia may also cause a loss of the ability to feel extremes of hot or cold, especially in the hands. The disorder generally leads to a cape-like loss of pain and temperature sensation along the back and arms. Each patient experiences a different combination of symptoms. These symptoms typically vary depending on the extent and, often more critically, to the location of the syrinx within the spinal cord.

Image: An idiopathic syrinx. See the thin light grey shape inside the spinal cord, placed at centre in the bottom half of the above image.

Aug 27

The Human Kidneys

The Human Kidneys

(Source: farm7.staticflickr.com)

Aug 26

Posterior abdominal wall, after removal of the peritoneum, showing kidneys, suprarenal capsules, and great vessels. (Hepatic veins labeled at center top.)

Posterior abdominal wall, after removal of the peritoneum, showing kidneys, suprarenal capsules, and great vessels. (Hepatic veins labeled at center top.)

Aug 25

“I welcomed my slavish existence as a surgical resident, the never-ending work, the cries that kept me in the present, the immersion in blood, pus, and tears — the fluids in which one dissolved all traces of self. In working myself ragged, I felt integrated…” — Abraham Verghese, Cutting for Stone

Aug 24

When cells apoptose, they appear to collapse, forming small blebs and vesicles called apoptotic bodies. Here, an apoptotic HeLa cell (center) sits among its healthy and dividing counterparts, revealing a striking collection of blebs on its surface. Although HeLa cells are the workhorse of many in vitro cell biological experiments, they are far from normal. They are propagated from a cervical tumor and contain an aberrant genome with multiple copies of several human chromosomes, some of which also carry papilloma viral genes.

When cells apoptose, they appear to collapse, forming small blebs and vesicles called apoptotic bodies. Here, an apoptotic HeLa cell (center) sits among its healthy and dividing counterparts, revealing a striking collection of blebs on its surface. Although HeLa cells are the workhorse of many in vitro cell biological experiments, they are far from normal. They are propagated from a cervical tumor and contain an aberrant genome with multiple copies of several human chromosomes, some of which also carry papilloma viral genes.

(Source: download.cell.com)

Aug 23

Representation of a complex between DNA and the protein p53
Tumor protein p53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TP53 gene. The p53 protein is crucial in multicellular organisms, where it regulates the cell cycle and, thus, functions as a tumor suppressor, preventing cancer. As such, p53 has been described as “the guardian of the genome” because of its role in conserving stability by preventing genome mutation. Hence TP53 is classified as a tumor suppressor gene. The name p53 is in reference to its apparent molecular mass. 

Representation of a complex between DNA and the protein p53

Tumor protein p53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TP53 gene. The p53 protein is crucial in multicellular organisms, where it regulates the cell cycle and, thus, functions as a tumor suppressor, preventing cancer. As such, p53 has been described as “the guardian of the genome” because of its role in conserving stability by preventing genome mutation. Hence TP53 is classified as a tumor suppressor gene. The name p53 is in reference to its apparent molecular mass. 

(Source: Wikipedia)

Aug 22

fastcompany:

Apple wants to be the hub for your health data, just the way it became the hub for your music, movies, and photos. But like the world before iTunes, it’s hard to imagine what our lives could be like with centralized health app data. To find out, we dug into Apple’s HealthKit framework and spoke to some top iOS developers. What we found could change the health care ecosystem even more than we expected. 
Here’s how Apple is about to upend another huge industry.

fastcompany:

Apple wants to be the hub for your health data, just the way it became the hub for your music, movies, and photos. But like the world before iTunes, it’s hard to imagine what our lives could be like with centralized health app data. To find out, we dug into Apple’s HealthKit framework and spoke to some top iOS developers. What we found could change the health care ecosystem even more than we expected.

Here’s how Apple is about to upend another huge industry.

Cancer invasion and metastasis transform a locally growing tumor into a systemic and live-threatening disease. But how tumor cells (green) migrate between organs is still largely a black box. Friedl and colleagues have developed a tool to watch cancer cells as they move through the skin of live mice. From these experiments, they’ve found that  tumor migration is remarkably “plastic;” cells adapt their transportation styles for various tissue conditions and even remodel the tissue itself to facilitate mobility.
Image: An overview of invading melanoma cells in the mouse dermis, with tumor cells (green) using both single-cell and collective invasion along and into tissue structures. Tumor cells expressing E2-Crimson are (false-colored) green, and muscle fibers expressing GFP are orange. Nerve fibers and collagen are blue (third harmonic) and grey (second harmonic), respectively. AlexaFluor660-dextran is red.

Cancer invasion and metastasis transform a locally growing tumor into a systemic and live-threatening disease. But how tumor cells (green) migrate between organs is still largely a black box. Friedl and colleagues have developed a tool to watch cancer cells as they move through the skin of live mice. From these experiments, they’ve found that tumor migration is remarkably “plastic;” cells adapt their transportation styles for various tissue conditions and even remodel the tissue itself to facilitate mobility.

Image: An overview of invading melanoma cells in the mouse dermis, with tumor cells (green) using both single-cell and collective invasion along and into tissue structures. Tumor cells expressing E2-Crimson are (false-colored) green, and muscle fibers expressing GFP are orange. Nerve fibers and collagen are blue (third harmonic) and grey (second harmonic), respectively. AlexaFluor660-dextran is red.

(Source: download.cell.com)

Aug 21

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination and leads to cognitive decline and psychiatric problems. It typically becomes noticeable in mid-adult life. HD is the most common genetic cause of abnormal involuntary writhing movements called chorea, which is why the disease used to be called Huntington’s chorea.  The disease is caused by an autosomal dominant mutation in either of an individual’s two copies of a gene called Huntingtin, which means any child of an affected person typically has a 50% chance of inheriting the disease. Physical symptoms of Huntington’s disease can begin at any age from infancy to old age, but usually begin between 35 and 44 years of age.

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination and leads to cognitive decline and psychiatric problems. It typically becomes noticeable in mid-adult life. HD is the most common genetic cause of abnormal involuntary writhing movements called chorea, which is why the disease used to be called Huntington’s chorea.  The disease is caused by an autosomal dominant mutation in either of an individual’s two copies of a gene called Huntingtin, which means any child of an affected person typically has a 50% chance of inheriting the disease. Physical symptoms of Huntington’s disease can begin at any age from infancy to old age, but usually begin between 35 and 44 years of age.