Could ‘lab-grown’ kidneys mark a breakthrough for patients awaiting transplants?
Researchers say there’s still a long way to go before engineered kidneys will be used in human transplants, but they say preliminary work on rats has proved that it is possible to bio-engineer a kidney that’s created specifically for an individual patient.
[Brendan Smialowski/AFP/Getty Images files]
Chinese man keeps himself alive for 13 years with HOMEMADE dialysis machine
Three times a week, Hu Songwen sits on a small toilet in his home in a rural east China town and fires up his homemade dialysis machine.
Hu, who suffers from kidney disease, made it from kitchen utensils and old medical instruments after he could no long afford hospital fees.
‘The cost for each home treatment is only 60 yuan (£6), which is 12 per cent of the hospital charge for dialysis,’ Hu said.
A kidney uriniferous filtration tubule (nephron). The main filtering units in the kidney are called glomeruli. Filtered fluid passes into the specialized tubules seen here. Water and useful substances are absorbed, concentrating the fluid. The concentrated fluid passes to the bladder as urine. The tubules have two portions. The first is called the nephron, and is concerned with urine production. The second, called collecting tubules, carry out the final concentration of urine.
The waste filtration units inside the kidneys are called nephrons. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of a healthy individual is normally greater than 60 ml/min/1.732m2 (milliliters per minute per 1.732 square meters) and usually between 90-120 ml/min, according to the National Kidney foundation.
Human Kidney-Bowman’s Capsule
This Picture is showing a cross section of cortex region of the kidney. Picture is focused into a glomerulus, located within the Bowman’s Capsule.Vascular Pole, Distal Convoluted tubule(small circular region), Macula Densa(cells lining the DC) are seen on the right side. At the same time proximal convoluted tubule(circular region),Urinary pole are seen on the left side of the picture. Efferent arteriole and Afferent Arteriole, which are not seen, joins the glomerulus in the vascular pole region.
- BC-Bowman’s Capsule
- PC-Proximal Convoluted Tubule
- DC-Distal Convoluted Tubule
- VP-Vascular Pole
- UP-Urinary Pole
- MD-Macula Densa
The visceral layer of bowman’s capsule
The Bowman’s capsule is a cup-like sac at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the mammalian kidney that performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine. A glomerulus is enclosed in the sac. Fluids from blood in the glomerulus are collected in the Bowman’s capsule (i.e., glomerular filtrate) and further processed along the nephron to form urine. This process is known as ultrafiltration.
A - Renal corpuscle
B - Proximal tubule
C - Distal convoluted tubule
D - Juxtaglomerular apparatus
1. Basement membrane (Basal lamina)
2. Bowman’s capsule - parietal layer
3. Bowman’s capsule - visceral layer
3a. Pedicels (podocytes)
3b. Podocyte or sometimes called Bowman’s cells
4. Bowman’s space (urinary space)
5a. Mesangium - Intraglomerular cell
5b. Mesangium - Extraglomerular cell
6. Granular cells (Juxtaglomerular cells)
7. Macula densa
8. Myocytes (smooth muscle)
9. Afferent arteriole
10. Glomerulus Capillaries
11. Efferent arteriole
Micrograph of a glomerulus
As blood passes through the glomerulus from the afferent arteriole, the plasma is filtered through a very fine physical mesh created by podocyte cells. This filtration process is entirely pressure- and osmotically- driven, with no active transport involved at this stage.
- AA- afferent arteriole
- EA- efferent arteriole
- BC- Bowman’s capsule
- US- urinary space
- TP- tubular pole- first part of collecting system