All bleeding eventually stops.
The cause of polycythemia varies and is often associated with certain activities or other medical conditions, in which case it is typically described as secondary polycythemia. For instance, the body frequently compensates for decreased oxygen related to prolonged habitation of high altitudes, smoking, certain types of cancer, pulmonary disease, heart disorders, and other conditions by increasing the production of red blood cells. In such cases, the polycythemia is usually treated by addressing the underlying condition. Similarly, relative polycythemia, which is a form of the condition in which the appearance of a raised erythrocyte level is the result of a reduction of blood plasma, is treated by correcting the problem that caused the plasma decrease, such as excessively low consumption of fluids, high blood pressure, or stress. Sometimes patients will take measures to relieve symptoms of polycythemia, such as using antihistamines to combat itchy skin, while they are attempting to remedy the cause.
IBB Blood Transfusion Packs is a 2012 red dot award: design concept winner.
With the IBB Blood Transfusion Packs there will be no room for error while administering blood to those who need it. The packaging makes it almost impossible for you to make a mistake, because the letters A, B, or O appear prominently when the bag is filled with blood. Every part of the bags except the letters is translucent and this is what makes it distinctive.
Sickle Cell Anemia
Early twentieth-century descriptions of sickle cell anemia in Western literature noted that sickling was related to low levels of oxygen, and before mid-century Linus Pauling and Harvey Itano demonstrated through protein electrophoresis that the hemoglobin of patients with the disease is different than that of normal individuals. In the subsequent decades, a more complete understanding of the disease was culled. According to modern medicine, sickle cell anemia is caused by a point mutation in one nucleotide within the sequence of 438 bases coding for the hemoglobin beta chain. A shift in the seventeenth nucleotide from a thymine base to an adenine base in the DNA of genes encoding hemoglobin causes a switch in the sixth amino acid, from glutamic acid to valine, in people with sickle cell anemia. The change of this one amino acid results in hemoglobin (generally referred to as hemoglobin S) that responds to oxygen deficiency by stacking into filaments and clustering in red blood cells containing the mutated protein in such a way that their shape is distorted. Initially, cells experiencing the distortion, or sickling, can resume their normal shape when they are reintroduced to oxygen. However, over time, they lose this ability and the sickle shape becomes permanent.
Blood flow from the body (aka the systemic circuit) returns to the heart via two large vessels known as the superior and inferior venae cavae. In some cases, a patient is born with an absent inferior vena cava; which is a problem if you want all the deoxygenated blood from your lower half to return to the heart. When this happens, the azygous vein, one of the veins that drains into the superior vena cava, can be used instead. This vein will be much larger than normal due to the need for increased blood flow. Instead of draining into the inferior vena cava, blood vessels in the lower half of the body drain into the enlarged azygous vein.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are multipotent stem cells that give rise to all the blood cell types from the myeloid (monocytes and macrophages, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, erythrocytes, megakaryocytes/ platelets, dendritic cells), and lymphoid lineages (T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells).
HSC = hematopoietic stem cell
Progenitor = progenitor cell
L-blast = lymphoblast,lymphocyte
Mo-blast = monoblast, monocyte, myeloblast
Pro-M = promyelocyte, myelocyte
Meta-M = metamyelocyte, neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil
Pro-E = proerythroblast
Baso-E = basophilic erythroblast
poly-E = polychromatic erythroblast
Ortho-E = Orthochromatic, erythroblast, erythrocyte, promegakaryocyte, megakaryocyte, platelet