News about the Ebola outbreak in West Africa continues to go from bad to worse.
Last week a doctor leading the fight against the outbreak got sick in Sierra Leone. Now two American aid workers have tested positive for the virus in Liberia, and the outbreak has likely spread to a fourth country, Nigeria.
The Nigerian government said Friday that a Liberian man died of Ebola at a hospital in Lagos — Africa’s most populous city, with more than 20 million people. Although the World Health Organization hasn’t confirmed the Nigerian case, the hospital has been shut down and patients there quarantined, Reuters reported.
All the while, the total number of cases continues to climb. So far, there have been 1,201 cases, including 672 deaths, WHO said Friday.
The first American to catch Ebola in the outbreak is Dr. Kent Brantly. The 33-year-old family doctor from Fort Worth, Texas, was infected while treating patients in Monrovia, the nonprofit Samaritan’s Purse said Sunday on its website.
Brantly is the medical director at an Ebola treatment center in Liberia’s capital. The clinic, where he is now being treated, is run by Samaritan’s Purse, a Christian aid group based in Boone, N.C. “He [Brantly] is in stable condition, talking with his doctors and working on his computer while receiving care,” the Charlotte Observer reported.
Photo: Dr. Kent Brantly (right) of Samaritan’s Purse gives orders to treat Ebola patients through the doorway of the isolation ward in Monrovia, Liberia. (Courtesy of Samaritan’s Purse)
Doxorubicin is a drug used in cancer chemotherapy. it works by intercalating DNA, with the most serious adverse effect being life-threatening heart damage. It is commonly used in the treatment of a wide range of cancers. Doxorubicin is commonly used to treat some leukemias and Hodgkin’s lymphoma, as well as cancers of the bladder, breast, stomach, lung, ovaries, thyroid, soft tissue sarcoma, multiple myeloma, and others. The most dangerous side effect of doxorubicin is cardiomyopathy, leading to congestive heart failure. The incidence of this cardiomyopathy is dependent on its cumulative dose. There are several ways in which doxorubicin is believed to cause cardiomyopathy, including oxidative stress, downregulation of genes for contractile proteins, and p53 mediated apoptosis.
In a groundbreaking study, researchers reveal a host of new genes involved in schizophrenia, making it possible to develop desperately needed treatments
It took 80,000 genetic samples, seven years and the work of 300 scientists from around the world, but scientists now have the most complete dossier on schizophrenia ever.
In an historic paper published in the journal Nature, the Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium identified 108 new regions on the genome linked to the psychiatric disorder, which is associated with hallucinations and psychotic episodes and affects about 1% of people worldwide.
What if there’s a better way forward than developing new drugs? What if we could “reverse evolution” and take germs to the state they were in the 1960s, when drug resistance wasn’t such a big problem?
There is no body cavity that cannot be reached with a number fourteen needle and a good strong arm.
Preoperative and postoperative X-ray of a person with thoracic dextroscoliosis and lumbar levoscoliosis: The X-ray is usually projected such that the right side of the subject is on the right side of the image; i.e., the subject is viewed from the rear (see top image; the bottom image is seen from the front). This projection is typically used by spine surgeons, as it is how surgeons see their patients when they are on the operating table (in the prone position). This is the opposite of conventional chest X-ray, where the image is projected as if looking at the patient from the front. The surgery was a fusion and instrumentation.
References to hydrocephalic skulls can be found in ancient Egyptian medical literature from 2500 BC to 500 AD. Hydrocephalus was described more clearly by the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates in the 4th century BC, while a more accurate description was later given by the Roman physician Galen in the 2nd century AD. The first clinical description of an operative procedure for hydrocephalus appears in the Al-Tasrif (1000 AD) by the Arab surgeon, Abulcasis, who clearly described the evacuation of superficial intracranial fluid in hydrocephalic children. He described it in his chapter on neurosurgical disease, describing infantile hydrocephalus as being caused by mechanical compression. He states:
“The skull of a newborn baby is often full of liquid, either because the matron has compressed it excessively or for other, unknown reasons. The volume of the skull then increases daily, so that the bones of the skull fail to close. In this case, we must open the middle of the skull in three places, make the liquid flow out, then close the wound and tighten the skull with a bandage.”
In 1881, a few years after the landmark study of Retzius and Key, Carl Wernicke pioneered sterile ventricular puncture and external CSF drainage for the treatment of hydrocephalus. It remained an intractable condition until the 20th century, when shunts and other neurosurgical treatment modalities were developed. It is a lesser-known medical condition; relatively small amounts of research are conducted to improve treatments for hydrocephalus, and to this day there remains no cure for the condition. In developing countries, it is common that this condition go untreated at birth. It is difficult to diagnose during ante-natal care and access to medical treatment is limited. However, when head swelling is prominent, children are taken at great expense for treatment. By then, brain tissue is undeveloped and neurosurgery is rare and difficult.
Hydrocephalus is a medical condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles, or cavities, of the brain. This may cause increased intracranial pressure inside the skull and progressive enlargement of the head, convulsion, tunnel vision, and mental disability. Hydrocephalus can also cause death. Although it does occur in older adults, it is more common in infants.
Image: Hydrocephalus seen on a CT scan of the brain
"Hard Doc’s Life" (Hospital Anthem) | A parody of Jay Z’s Hard Knock Life (Ghetto Anthem) in honor of the hospital doctors on the front lines representing.
When Ian Burkhart was 19, he accidentally dove into a sandbar while in the water with friends and quickly realized what had happened: He was paralyzed. Today, Burkhart is still paralyzed—but he can move his hand by controlling it with his mind.
The world’s largest Ebola outbreak continues to surge at a troubling rate. The number of cases has climbed by nearly 20 percent in the past week, the World Health Organization said Tuesday.
At least 759 people have caught the hemorrhagic fever and 467 of those have died in three West African countries since March.
The WHO has been so concerned about the disease spreading to other countries that the agency held an emergency meeting this week in Accra, Ghana.
To contain this “unprecedented outbreak,” the agency said Thursday, it needs more people on the ground to find cases, and to track down the family, friends, co-workers and other contacts of these infected patients. The agency called for more money and better communication among the countries involved.
The WHO is also setting up an Ebola control center in Guinea to coordinate the effort.
As NPR’s Jason Beaubian explained Thursday on All Things Considered, while the outbreak shows signs of slowing down in Guinea, it continues to expand in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Ebola cases have appeared in more than 60 cities and villages, some far-flung — up to 400 miles apart. That’s about the distance between Boston and Baltimore.
So why has this outbreak been so hard to contain? Many factors have come together to create the crisis.
Chart: The 2014 outbreak is the largest on record. Values are as of July 1. (Data from WHO/Michaeleen Doucleff/NPR)
Warfarin is an anticoagulant normally used in the prevention of thrombosis and thromboembolism, the formation of blood clots in the blood vessels and their migration elsewhere in the body respectively. It was initially introduced in 1948 as a pesticide against rats and mice and is still used for this purpos. In the early 1950s, warfarin was found to be effective and relatively safe for preventing thrombosis and thromboembolism in many disorders. It was approved for use as a medication in 1954 and has remained popular ever since; warfarin is the most widely prescribed oral anticoagulant drug in North America.
If the placebo works as well as the active drug, we could perhaps take them the way we take pills today, perhaps even knowing they were fake. Several studies have shown placebos working even when patients knew what was happening.
The maps that track death and disease across the world aren’t usually uplifting. But a new map from the Pulitzer Center tells a different kind of story, one that actually marks a set of enormous, but quiet, wins for decreasing the rate of childhood mortality.